Life[ edit ] Eco was born in the city of Alessandriain Piedmont in northern Italy, and here he attended high school. His father, Giulio, one of thirteen children, was an accountant before the government called him to serve in three wars. Umberto's father urged him to become a lawyer, but he entered the University of Turin to take up medieval philosophy and literature, writing his thesis on Thomas Aquinas and earning a Laurea degree in philosophy in
Dietary guidelines can be derived from dietary patterns known to be healthy such as the traditional Mediterranean diet. They can also be deduced by translating a set of nutrient recommendations into food combinations. However, the latter may vary depending on the decisions made by different expert committees.
The objective was to compare the effect of removing or adding selected nutrient recommendations on the dietary changes needed to fulfill a whole set of nutrient recommendations.
Eight sets of models were developed according to the inclusion or not of constraints on total fats, total carbohydrates, total MUFAs, and cholesterol.
Compared with the observed intakes, fulfilling the whole set of nutrient constraints systematically decreased total fats and increased total carbohydrates, even in the absence of specific constraints on those macronutrients. For whichever model used, a strong consistency was observed in the dietary changes needed to fulfill the constraints, and the greatest increases were seen for unsalted nuts, unrefined grains, legumes, Agence rencontre levis, fish and shellfish, and vegetables.
Whether recommendations on total fats, MUFAs, or total carbohydrates are included or not in the definition of overall nutrient adequacy, foods typical of the Mediterranean diet are needed to reach overall nutrient adequacy.
However, people consume foods, not nutrients.
It is thus necessary to advise the general public about healthy food patterns through dietary guidelines. Such advice can be based on an existing dietary pattern known to be associated with good health, such as the traditional Mediterranean diet 4 — 8.
The advice can also be based on dietary guidelines specifically developed to help people from a given population meet their nutrient needs in a way that is culturally and socioeconomically acceptable 9 — Identifying which food should be consumed and in what quantity to fulfill the nutrient needs of a target population is a complex task that requires sophisticated approaches 11 — Individual diet modeling, in particular, is able to translate nutrient recommendations into combinations of real food choices while taking into consideration the individual variability of eating patterns in a given population 14 — One key problem in deriving dietary guidelines from nutrient recommendations is that the latter may vary depending on the positions adopted by different expert committees.
This is particularly true for macronutrient intakes, for which clear evidence of a causal effect on health and disease is often lacking Regarding specific lipids, such as MUFAs and cholesterol, the debate is both about their desired level and whether or not to set a specific recommendation for them 23 — Surprisingly, the consequence of modifying a given nutrient recommendation on its feasibility and the dietary changes needed to meet the recommended intakes for a whole set of nutrients has seldom been addressed 28 The objective of the present study was therefore to analyze the effect of introducing recommendations on total fats, total carbohydrates, MUFAs, and cholesterol and combinations of these on the smallest required changes in food choices to reach overall nutrient adequacy for each individual in a representative sample of French adults.
A food composition database was specifically developed for this survey Alcoholic beverages, tea, and coffee were excluded from all analyses. All foods in the database were aggregated into 7 groups and 20 categories.
Individual diet optimization The aim of individual diet modeling is to design, for each individual in a population, an optimized diet that is both individual-specific and nutritionally adequate As previously described 14for each INCA participant, the optimization process started from his or her observed diet ie, 7-d food record and nutrient intakes to design a new weekly modeled diet that simultaneously conformed with a whole set of nutrient constraints and that was the closest to his or her usual eating pattern to optimize acceptability.
As previously reported 14the objective function was aimed at 1 preferentially choosing foods already declared as consumed by each individual in the 7-d food record, 2 minimizing the reduction of foods already consumed, and 3 introducing in the lowest quantity possible foods that were not declared as consumed only if necessary for the fulfillment of the constraints and preferentially selecting foods most frequently eaten by the French population to favor acceptability.
Constraints on food Constraints on food quantities were introduced to ensure realism in the optimized diets. As previously described 14an upper limit was set for the quantity of each particular food, each food category, and each food group.There are 10+ professionals named Claire Levi, who use LinkedIn to exchange information, ideas, and opportunities.
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