Saul McLeodupdated Behaviorism refers to a psychological approach which emphasizes scientific and objective methods of investigation. The approach is only concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviors, and states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment. The behaviorist movement began in when John Watson wrote an article entitled 'Psychology as the behaviorist views it,' which set out a number of underlying assumptions regarding methodology and behavioral analysis:
It then moves on to more recent developments within the Freudian framework. Next there is an account of the basic techniques of psychoanalytical treatment. Finally, there is a section on some of the many criticisms of psychoanalysis, with responses. Psychoanalysis remains the single most influential theory for the practice of psychotherapy.
Freud began the movement, so this paper will begin with his foundation. One way of dividing his theory is into five parts: He traces all instincts, and in a certain sense therefore all actions, back to two instincts; they are the Eros "sexual instinct" or "libido" and the "destructive aggressive instinct.
The primary example of this is sex itself, where of course the libido is present, and varying degrees of aggression or lack thereof can lead someone to either be bashful and impotent or a sex murderer, and anything in-between.
This attempts, in some fashion, to abstractly quantify the power of instincts through the concept of "psychic energy. This, however, is balanced by the concept of anti-cathexes, in which the energy is invested as a force against the instinct, via defense in the ego this concept will be further elaborated in the section on the structural model.
Freud noted three major ideas in his theory that contradicted common beliefs. First, sexual life begins at birth. Third, physical pleasure may be brought into the service of reproduction, but the two often fail to coincide completely.
The oral phase begins at birth, when the mouth is the only erotogenic zone.
The Sadistic- Anal Phase is characterized by satisfaction being sought in aggression and in the excretory function. In the Phallic Phase the male genitals take center stage.
The male then enters the "Oedipal Stage" and begins touching his penis and fantasizing about doing something with it to his mother, until the threat of castration and realization of the lack of a penis in females throws him into the period of latency.
The next phase, puberty, is the one in which the individuals become increasingly aware of their adult sexual roles. The structural model consists of three parts: The id is the agency of the "psychical apparatus" which contains much of what is inherited there are also inherited ego characteristicsincluding the instincts.
Psychic energy gets displaced and transformed, and then eventually discharged through action. Psychic determinism is that the instincts and their vicissitudes determine human behavior, modified by the ego.
The ego is the agency that acts as an intermediary between the id and the external world. It takes on the tasks of voluntary movement using muscles in response to stimuli and self preservation. It is charged with gaining control over the demands of the instincts, and choosing which ones to satisfy and when.
The ego seeks pleasure and avoids unpleasure. When increases in unpleasure are expected, they are met by anxiety. The ego not only has to balance the id with reality, but also with the superego. The superego is the agency formed over time by the parents and society of the individual.
It observes, orders, judges, and threatens the ego with punishment just like the parents whose place it has taken. We are generally aware of it as our conscience.
Freud attributed the severity of the superego to the strength of defense used against the temptation of the Oedipus complex and used this to claim that men have more fully developed superegos--but that is a more complex matter that is more fully dealt with in the sections of this paper on criticisms.
The second structural model is the topographical one. It, again, consists of three main parts: The unconscious is the part of the mind that is inaccessible to conscious thought. It is governed by the pleasure principle, which is simply that drives seek discharge as readily as possible.
The barriers between it and the conscious are repression and other defenses.
Freud b saw dreams and dream analysis as the central window to the unconscious see the section on treatment. The preconscious is the part of the mind which is accessible to conscious thought, but is not currently being thought about. An example of preconscious thoughts might be accessible but distant memories.
The line of demarcation between the unconscious and the preconscious is the important distinction to draw; the line between the preconscious and the conscious is less important, and is blurry at best.
The conscious is the accessible, "conscious" part of the mind, which contains thought processes including very importantly speech although the preconscious is also considered somewhat verbal.Introduction Before starting any business operations the organisation set the goals and objectives to be achieved as a result of that activity, sam.
Revised 8/ OVERVIEW OF THEORIES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR & THE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT APPLICATIONS TO SOCIAL WORK GENERALIST PRACTICE The following is a very general outline summarizing the theories covered in the NCSSS foundation classes of SSS.
Amongst the multiple theories that provide a foundation for effective academic advising practice are those of student development, cognitive development, career development, learning, decision-making, multiculturalism, retention, personality, moral development, and adult development (Creamer, ).
development. Educators’ professional theories that influence their work. There are professional networks in Australia or informing current practice is an essential part of this updating and enrichment process for all educators.
There is no one right way, but there are better ways, and. 7 Nursing Theories To Practice By. September 12th, By Jennifer Olin, Her development of this abstract system was strongly influenced by an early grounding in arts and background of science along with her keen interest in space.
10/22/ 2 The Role of Theories of Social Development Theories of social development attempt to account for important aspects of development: – Emotion, personality, attachment, Social development theories – Explain how children's development is influenced by the people and individuals around them.