And what does that mean?
Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Bourgois lived with his wife and child in the neighborhood he was studying which was a crumbling tenement barrio.
Throughout the five years of his participant-observation research, he created relationships with approximately two dozen crack house traffickers and their families.
He brought to the study a political structural look into the plight of the underclass in the modern urban economy. He gave a look into the intimate everyday life answers about the way his friends and subjects saw this world and organized their lives within it.
The author notes the street patterns of attitudes and behaviors and gives the reader individualistic explanations to the structural, cultural, economic and family trends emerging in contemporary urban America.
Inner city unionized factory jobs that supported their masculine identities have been replaced with service sector jobs that devastated their sense of power, position and respect.
Their dreams of attaining secure lives in a new country were a clash with the reality that they had to ultimately have to accept serving in economically and socially marginalized roles. This came through their disheartening experiences when seeking jobs in traditionally masculine work arenas such as construction, where they were racially discriminated against, to their failures in the newer, feminized occupational realm of the service sector where employment was dominated by women, submissiveness and the upper middle class white culture which they could never understand or master.
They are caught in a semi-assimilated world where they no longer fit within the Puerto Rican culture they only to find little place in the legitimate New York economy. These men and women wrestled with global changes in gender roles.
The women moved into positions of greater economic responsibility and independence, gradually freeing themselves from the tyrannical dominance of violent men, only to find themselves trapped by their cultural gender role expectations of romantic love, status and fulfillment wedded to having a boyfriend, and intimacy attained through childbearing.
He looks into the first large scale entry of women into the drug scene, an alarming development that has threatened to undermine the inner city childrearing.
Without women creating extended pseudo-kinship networks, the children born to the disenfranchised men and their youthful, idealistic women become subject to even greater social disorganization and disarray. This deterioration and the effect it has on inner city children, relating these not only to personal and social problems of individuals, but to the macro economic trends that have characterized the reproduction of poor populations.
The children of this underclass are experiencing higher mortality rates during adolescence than at younger ages, as the barrio works better to support and nurture children than young teenagers. The harsh economic realities of life and the barrio cultural roles that frame behavioral expectations take a heavy toll on adolescents as soon as they separate from their mothers and move into the destructive social and economic roles open to them.
Rejected in the legitimate economy, the boys become dealers. Abused by the boys, the girls become desperate single mothers.
These roles are filled with contradictions, as their traditional Puerto Rican family models concerning parenthood conflict with contemporary adaptations, undermining both maternal nurturance and paternal support. We witness, then the pain of young people, young families and young children, as they suffer and self destruct.
This structural victimization is rooted to the issues of poverty, racial segregation, economic polarization and social inequality that have created the conditions fostering the rampant substance abuse.
These will be examined more deeply to understand Bourgois ethnography of the people of El Barrio Bourgois With poverty most social thinkers over the past century have been in general agreement concerning the long-term effects of urbanization and modernization on the family.
They see a progressive nuclearization of the family in the face of modernization. Although in many parts of the world we can observe the association between modernization and fewer extended kinship ties. There are a number of exceptions, most in developing countries.
The Puerto Rican Americans in New York use extended kinship ties as a strategy for coping with poverty. The natural family is a nuclear family consisting of two monogamous heterosexual parents with children.
In the past four decades this typical family has become harder to find. According to census data forfewer than 27 percent of all families in the United States are comprised of married couples with children less than eighteen years of age.
There are two explanations to poverty the first focuses on social structure and this feature of society will deny people access to education or learning job skills as with individuals in El Barrio. They emphasize racial, ethnic, age and gender discrimination as well as changes in the job market such as the closing of plants, drying up of unskilled jobs and an increase in marginal jobs that pay poverty wages.
Another explanation focuses on characteristics of individuals that are assumed to contribute to poverty. Individualistic explanations that anthropologists reject outright as worthless stereotypes are laziness and lack of intelligence. Individualistic explanations that anthropologists will acknowledge include dropping out of school, bearing children at younger ages, and averaging more children than women in the other social classes, but it should be kept in mind this is not blame only observation.
Poverty is unequally distributed in the United States. Latinos, African Americans, Native Americans, children, women headed households, and rural Americans are more likely than others to be poor.
The poverty rate of the elderly is less than that of the general population. Some believe that a characteristic of individuals, such as the desire for immediate gratification causes poverty, but in ethnography studies structural features are examined Lavenda and Schultz When looking at economic polarization anthropologist understands the most fundamental requirements of all societies are to see that the basic physiological needs of its people are met.
People cannot live unless they receive a minimum amount of food, water, and protection from the elements. Society will not last without living people, every society needs to work out systematic ways of producing or procuring from the environment the essential commodities and then distributing what it regards as necessary to its members.
Philippe Bourgois book In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio was published in , and discussed his experiences of authors living in El Barrio (East Harlem). In the writer moved to this district of New York City with the purpose of studying the impact of imposed racial segregation and economic marginalization on the inner city Puerto Rican population (intro pg.1). A review essay on “In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio” by Philippe Bourgois. What and how does this monograph reveal about the quality of people’s lives and experiences in East Harlem. Social Anthropology 1B Exam Number: B Word Count: 1 A review essay on “In Search. In Search of Weeping Worlds: Economies of Agency and Politics of Representation in the Ethnography of Inequality. In Radical History Review Bourgois, Philippe In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio.
In the United States, goods and services are distributed according to a capitalistic principle. In socialist countries as Cuba and China, distribution takes place to the principal of each according to their need.In chapter 7 of In Search of Respect, Selling Crack in El Barrio, Philippe Bourgois was able to convincingly show how the very culture spawned by the crack trade can change or transform in a major way not just people’s present aspirations, but also their future social conditions in life.
Reference. Bourgois, P. ().
In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio Edit In his second ethnography, In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio () Bourgois is concerned with showing the effects of structural inequality and social marginalization in the United States. In Search of Weeping Worlds: Economies of Agency and Politics of Representation in the Ethnography of Inequality.
In Radical History Review Bourgois, Philippe In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. Philippe Bourgois book In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio was published in , and discussed his experiences of authors living in El Barrio (East Harlem). In the writer moved to this district of New York City with the purpose of studying the impact of imposed racial segregation and economic marginalization on the inner city Puerto Rican population (intro pg.1).
“In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio” by Philippe Bourgois Sample Essay. The book “In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio” by Philippe Bourgois is an in-depth expression of the working community and household lives of inner-city Puerto Rican cleft traders in East Harlem and gives of import replies to many of the hard inquiries confronting policy-makers - “In.
Please use the three reading uploaded to answer both of the question. The main reading is Philippe Bourgois. Question 1 – What do you think? The piece you read was part of Philippe Bourgois's book “In Search of Respect.” Bourgois is an anthropologist who conducted an ethnography (became embedded in a community and lived with them) in Harlem, NY.