As used in sections Amended by th General AssemblyFile No.
More information including an online version of this manual and executables for several platforms are available at the DLV homepage http: For a more thorough and formal definition refer to Chapter 2.
You can invoke DLV directly on the command-line. If you do not specify any options or files, DLV will just print some informational output: The first line will most probably look different with your installation. It first tells you which program this is, then it gives information about the version.
This consists of the identifier BEN, which stands for "benchmark version", Note: Versions other than BEN should only be used for development purposes! Usually, you will not have to bother with these gory details, but please include this information when you are reporting a bug or asking for support.
If you do not want to see this status line, use the -silent option, which suppresses various informational output and blank lines.
From now on, all examples will include the -silent option. Since we did not specify any input file, DLV just prints a brief usage message.
Let's try with an empty file. Caution It is very important to note the difference between an empty model as above and no model: If a program has no model, it is contradictory or inconsistent in some sense, while this is not the case with an empty model. Disjunctive Datalog DLV's native language is Disjunctive Datalog extended with constraints, true negation and queries.
The most basic elements of Disjunctive Datalog are constants. They refer to entities, just as objects which are stored in relational databases. Constant names must begin with a lowercase letter and may be composed of letters, underscores and digits. Additionally, all numbers are constants as well.
Variables are placeholders for constants. Variable names must begin with an uppercase letter and may contain letters, underscores and digits. There is a special feature, which is called anonymous variable. Anonymous variables thus can be thought of as preprocessor statements which are substituted by unique variable names Actually this description is quite close to what really happens internally.
The purpose of this feature is to specify that an argument can be ignored or does not matter in the current rule resp. Since anonymous variables represent unique variables, there is no point of using them in the head of a rule or in a negative literal in the body, because such rules cannot be safe see Chapter 3.
A term is either a simple term or a complex term.
A simple term is either a constant or a variable. A functional term is a function symbol followed by a parenthesized list of terms. A function symbol must begin with a lowercase letter and may be composed of letters, underscores and digits.
A list term can have the two following forms: Since the presence of complex terms could cause the derivation of infinitely many new terms, programs including complex terms are checked in order to verify if termination is a priori guaranteed see Chapter 3.
Predicate symbols begin with a letter and may contain letters, underscores and digits. Again, not is not a valid predicate. It is used to represent one or several by using placeholders tuples in the relation identified by the predicate. An atom is denoted by the predicate name, and if there are any terms involved they are written between parentheses and separated by commata.
The number of terms which a predicate takes in an atom is referred to as arity and must be constant for every predicate. Unlike other systems, DLV supports two types of negation:Aggregate Planning Operations Management Chapter 13 Chris Schrage OPS 13 2 Planning Process Scheduling Decisions Short range Medium range Long range Chris Schrage OPS 13 3 Aggregate Combining appropriate resources into general or overall terms Disaggregation Breaking up components of aggregate plan into detailed aspects Chris Schrage OPS 13 4.
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