These people learn best when information is presented visually and in a written form.
Find articles by Ana G. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned.
Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs are some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy.
However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles i. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective.
Lectures are used in a variety of situations for teaching theoretical knowledge in medicine, ranging from classrooms for medical students and residents, to symposia, conferences and congresses for continuing medical education. Lectures have proved to be as effective as other teaching methods for delivering knowledge and information.
Despite these challenges lectures are still among the cornerstones of academic teaching. Many authors have recommended the inclusion of strategies to make them more effective 161213141516171819202122 — from more active student involvement to variations on the lecture itself.
These strategies would allow an evolution from static, passive formats in which students sit for an hour only to listen to what the instructor has to say to more dynamic and Learning styles presentation formats, allowing more student participation and involvement in their own learning.
An adequate instructional design for combining texts and images in audio-visual aids would also be necessary to make these more effective for learning.
Additionally, it will offer recommendations for creating organized, relevant, interactive and effective lectures. Adult learning principles Since, Eduard C. Lindeman's pioneer paper inThe Meaning of Adult Education, which awakened interest in and set the basis for the systematic research about how adults learn, educators and psychologists have contributed to the development of many varied theories and hypothesis about the learning characteristics of adults.
Taylor and Hamdy summarized the learning theories and classified them in the following categories: They include cognitive situated theories that consider learning and thinking as social activities taking place in a community and influenced by context 3 Motivational models - These emphasize the value of internal motivation and reflection as necessary for learning Reflective models - These hold that reflection lends to change.
Reflective learning 31 and deliberate practice 3233 theories are examples of these models. As shown by this classification, the theories are numerous. Elements from all of them may be applied to explain how adults learn; although none of them is complete on its own all of them have limitations.
Andragogy In the s, Malcolm S. Knowles developed a model to explain the characteristics of learning in adults based in the following assumptions: They need to know how learning will be conducted, what learning will occur and why learning is important.
The pedagogical implications of this assumption are that: These allow for appropriate planning, in order to avoid the mistake of teaching content so basic that students already know it the lecture is viewed as a waste of time or so difficult that they find it impossible to understand they lack the knowledge base to understand the content or they find it irrelevant to their needs It is fundamental to introduce goals and objectives at the beginning of the lecture - what learners will be able to know or do with the knowledge acquired during the lecture It is good practice to present an outline at the beginning of the lecture to give the learners a preview of what they will learn.
The learner's self-concept Adults have the self-concept of being responsible of their own decisions and their own lives and consequently need to be considered by others as capable of self-direction. Teachers should help their adult students become self-directed learners: Learners that are able to control, motivate, supervise and adjust their own learning.
The role of learner's experiences Adults come to learning situations with accumulated experience; therefore, in any group of adults there is a wide range of individual differences regarding background, learning styles, motivation, needs, interests and goals.
Also, adults tend to develop mental habits, biases and assumptions that usually make them resistant to new ideas and alternative methods of learning. Group discussions, debates, case-based methods, etc. Additionally, constructivist learning theories suggest that new information must connect to previous knowledge in order to be understood, retained and then utilized.
This principle supports the relationship between the content to be taught and the learner's developmental stage. For example, a lecture about phacoemulsification with premium intraocular lenses might not be relevant for first-year residents, although it would be useful for third-year residents.
Orientation to learning Adults will be motivated to learn as long as they perceive the learning as useful to help them perform tasks or solve problems they face in their lives. They will learn more effectively when new knowledge, skills, attitudes and values are presented in the context of their application to real life situations.
This concept implies that the content of lectures should be relevant to what learners need to cope with in their daily practice. The instructor's experience on the subject matter presented through personal stories or cases adds to the relevance that the audience may find in the content.
Motivation Although adults respond to external motivators better jobs, promotions, higher salaries, etc. Letting learners know why they need to know a topic or what they will be able to do with the knowledge acquired from the lecture i.
Learners are involved in more than listening Less emphasis is placed on transmitting information and more on developing a student's skills Learners are involved in higher order thinking analysis, synthesis and evaluation Students are engaged in activities e.
Strategies promoting active learning include questions and debates, reflective activities and small group discussions, case studies, role-playing and more. Several authors suggest that active learning techniques may have greater effectiveness in medicine and other disciplines.Learning styles (power point) 1.
Strategies, Resources andCompetences in English 2. What is a learning style? Learning style is described as a group of characteristics, attitudes and . Presentation on Study Styles and Learning Strategies (Bennion/Gilbo) What do we recommend to students not accustomed to the pace of medical school?
1) FIND YOUR LEARNING STYLE. Do you learn best by drawing diagrams or by reading an article? Do you prefer listening to a new subject or participating in a hands-on activity? Presentation graphics should be about learning, not about presentation.
PowerPoint presentations should help students organize their notes, not just “be” the notes. This is a particular danger with students who grew up accustomed to receiving PowerPoint notes to study from.
R.M. Felder, "Learning Styles and Teaching Styles." History of Dr.
Felder's initial engagement with the sometimes controversial (although it wasn't at the time) topic of learning styles. The Index of Learning Styles is a self-scoring questionnaire for assessing preferences on the four dimensions of the Felder-Silverman model.
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Learning styles refer to a range of competing and contested theories that aim to account for differences in individuals' learning. These theories propose that all people can be classified according to their 'style' of learning.