Circulatory organisation General arrangement The cardiovascular system consists of two pumps arranged in series Fig.
Rheumatic heart disease — heart muscles and valves damage due to rheumatic fever caused by Streptococcus pyogenes a group A streptococcal infection.
Risk factors There are many risk factors for heart diseases: One of them relates to serum cholesterol level. In men, this increase levels off around age 45 to 50 years. In women, the increase continues sharply until age 60 to 65 years. Estrogen may have protective effects on glucose metabolism and hemostatic system, and may have direct effect in improving endothelial cell function.
These effects may, at least in part, explain its cardiovascular benefits.
The World Health Organization attributes approximately 1. There is a direct relationship between high levels of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease. However, delays in recognition and diagnosis of celiac disease can cause irreversible heart damage.
Psychosocial factors, environmental exposures, health behaviours, and health-care access and quality contribute to socio-economic differentials in cardiovascular disease.
They include family history, coronary artery calcification score, high sensitivity C-reactive protein hs-CRPankle—brachial pressure indexlipoprotein subclasses and particle concentration, lipoprotein aapolipoproteins A-I and B, fibrinogenwhite blood cell count, homocysteineN-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide NT-proBNPand markers of kidney function.
There is evidence that workplace exposure to lead, carbon disulphide, phenoxyacids containing TCDD, as well as working in an environment where aluminium is being electrolytically produced, is associated with stroke.
Several large-scale research projects looking at human genetic data have found a robust link between the presence of these mutations, a condition known as clonal hematopoiesisand cardiovascular disease-related incidents and mortality.
The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth PDAY study demonstrated that intimal lesions appear in all the aortas and more than half of the right coronary arteries of youths aged 7—9 years.
In order to stem the tide, education and awareness that cardiovascular disease poses the greatest threat, and measures to prevent or reverse this disease must be taken.
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are often linked to cardiovascular disease,  as are a history of chronic kidney disease and hypercholesterolaemia. Framingham or Reynolds risk scores. The number and variety of risk scores available for use has multiplied, but their efficacy according to a review was unclear due to lack of external validation or impact analysis.
Tobacco cessation and avoidance of second-hand smoke.
Excessive alcohol intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease   and consumption of alcohol is associated with increased risk of a cardiovascular event in the day following consumption. A Cochrane Review found some evidence that interventions aiming to reduce more than one cardiovascular risk factor may have beneficial effects on blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference; however, evidence was limited and the authors were unable to draw firm conclusions on the effects on cardiovascular events and mortality.
It is unclear whether or not dental care in those with periodontitis affects their risk of cardiovascular disease. Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease and Salt and cardiovascular disease A diet high in fruits and vegetables decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease and death.
A Cochrane review found some evidence that yoga has beneficial effects on blood pressure and cholesterol, but studies included in this review were of low quality. Epidemiology Cardiovascular diseases deaths per million persons in —The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics- Chapter 19 Starting with an artery list the types of blood vessels blood flows through.
Describe and order the 3 layers of an artery? The Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, consists of the heart, blood vessels and approximately 5 litres of blood.
55% of the blood is straw coloured yellow and 45% of the blood is made up of red and white blood cells and tiny particles called platelets.
Chapter The Cardiovascular System: The Blood 1. Describe the functions of blood. A. Blood B. Blood is a liquid connective tissue that consists of cells surrounded by a liquid extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix is called blood plasma, and it suspends various cells and cell fragments.
C. A blood protein converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin in the blood-clotting process formed element a general term for any of the blood cells, including the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
Laura Minarsch Vice President, Clinical. Laura Minarsch is a senior executive in the medical device industry with 30+ years of experience in clinical development and trial strategy, including the design, development and execution of first-in-human (FIH) studies.
Blood disorder, bone marrow cancer that affects the production of white blood cells.