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Desalination stills control pressure, temperature and brine concentrations to optimize efficiency.
Nuclear-powered desalination might be economical on a large scale. Unfortunately, that includes some of the places with biggest water problems. Thus, it may be more economical to transport fresh water from somewhere else than to desalinate it.
In places far from the sea, like New Delhior in high places, like Mexico Citytransport costs could match desalination costs. Desalinated water is also expensive in places that are both somewhat far from the sea and somewhat high, such as Riyadh and Harare. By contrast in other locations transport costs are much less, such as BeijingBangkokZaragozaPhoenixand, of course, coastal cities like Tripoli.
In Decemberthe South Australian government announced it would build a seawater desalination plant for the city of Adelaide, Australia, located at Port Stanvac.
The desalination plant was to be funded by raising water rates to achieve full cost recovery. The facility would producecubic metres of drinking water per day, enough to supply abouthomes.
The board of directors of Tampa Bay Water was forced to buy the plant from Poseidon in to prevent a third failure of the project. The facility reached capacity only in These structures can have the same impacts to the environment as desalination facility intakes[ according to whom?
According to EPA, water intake structures cause adverse environmental impact by sucking fish and shellfish or their eggs into an industrial system.
There, the organisms may be killed or injured by heat, physical stress, or chemicals. Larger organisms may be killed or injured when they become trapped against screens at the front of an intake structure.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Desalination processes produce large quantities of brinepossibly at above ambient temperature, and contain residues of pretreatment and cleaning chemicals, their reaction byproducts and heavy metals due to corrosion.
With medium to large power plant and desalination plants, the power plant's cooling water flow is likely to be several times larger than that of the desalination plant, reducing the salinity of the combination.
Another method to dilute the brine is to mix it via a diffuser in a mixing zone. For example, once a pipeline containing the brine reaches the sea floor, it can split into many branches, each releasing brine gradually through small holes along its length.
Mixing can be combined with power plant or wastewater plant dilution. Brine is denser than seawater and therefore sinks to the ocean bottom and can damage the ecosystem.
Careful reintroduction can minimize this problem. Typical ocean conditions allow for rapid dilution, thereby minimizing harm.
Alternatives without pollution[ edit ] Some methods of desalination, particularly in combination with evaporation pondssolar stillsand condensation trap solar desalinationdo not discharge brine. They do not use chemicals or burn fossil fuels.
They do not work with membranes or other critical parts, such as components that include heavy metals, thus do not produce toxic waste and high maintenance. A new approach that works like a solar still, but on the scale of industrial evaporation ponds is the integrated biotectural system.
One of the advantages of this system is the feasibility for inland operation. Standard advantages also include no air pollution and no temperature increase of endangered natural water bodies from power plant cooling-water discharge. Another important advantage is the production of sea salt for industrial and other uses.
Israeli researchers claimed a possible link between seawater desalination and iodine deficiency,  finding deficits among euthyroid adults exposed to iodine-poor water  concurrently with an increasing proportion of their area's drinking water from seawater reverse osmosis SWRO.Are you looking for a reliable RO water purifier to use at your home?
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